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December 2020 — CROCUS celebrates two decades of Pre-K research in Tulsa, Oklahoma

In the fall of 2001, Georgetown University’s Center for Research on Children in the U.S. (CROCUS) launched a pioneering study of Tulsa, Oklahoma’s universal pre-K program, which provides high-quality pre-K to all 4-year-olds irrespective of income. (see a one page summary of that research). Journal articles, policy briefs, and news reports can be found (above) on this website.

The CROCUS team is currently studying the effects of Tulsa’s early childhood education programs on high school outcomes. Soon they hope to determine whether Tulsa’s early childhood education programs yield higher high school graduation rates and higher college enrollment rates.
Stay tuned!


January 2020 — CROCUS researchers find that Tulsa’s magnet schools play a key role in helping to sustain positive pre-K effects over time. The research, by Karin Kitchens (Virginia Tech), William Gormley (Georgetown), and Sara Anderson (Child Trends) appears in the Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology (“Do better schools help to prolong early childhood education effects”). It supports what is sometimes called the “sustaining environments” hypothesis.


Pre-K Program Benefits Last Into Middle School, New Study Finds

December 12, 2017 – Positive effects of pre-K programs are detectable as late as middle school, according to a new study published today by two Georgetown professors.

The study, the first of its kind to evaluate the effects of a universal, public school pre-K program on middle school outcomes, was authored by McCourt School of Public Policy professor William Gormley, Georgetown psychology professor Deborah Phillips and Sara Anderson of Child Trends.

The article, “The Effects of Tulsa’s Pre-K Program on Middle School Student Performance,” appears today in the current issue of Journal of Policy Analysis and Management.



Center for Research on Children in the U.S. (CROCUS) – Since its founding in 2001, CROCUS faculty and students have worked on a variety of projects relating to children and public policy. Many of them have focused on early childhood education, including pre-K, child care, and Head Start. A joint venture between the McCourt School of Public Policy and the Department of Psychology at Georgetown University, CROCUS is directed by William Gormley (University Professor, Professor of Government & Public Policy) and Deborah Phillips (Professor of Psychology). Over the years, funding has come from: the Foundation for Child Development, the Heising-Simons Foundation, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, the Pew Charitable Trusts (through NIEER), the Spencer Foundation, the Stranahan Foundation, the A.L. Mailman Family Foundation, and the National Institute for Child Health and Development.